Hypothesis of Auto-Immune Disease Part-2 Of 8
THE DISRUPTION OF THE THYMUS IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE:
The perception that the Thymus is over -active in auto-immune disease can be explained as follows. The Stress Response to the cell starvation activates the cortisol in excess, which suppresses the IL-1. So the IL-1 is not present to activate the resting inactive helper T cells. This disrupts the Major histocompatibility complex antigens (MHC) process. The MHC-II appears only on T cells that have been activated and on the cells of the Thymus.
The T cells' immune response is disabled because they remain inactive, so the sole responsibility of the immune response is falling on the shoulders of the Thymus. So the Thymus cells are increasing to compensate for the lost activated T cell response, and this internal adjustment comes across as an abnormality. When a peptide fragment from a self-protein is associated with an MHC antigen on the surface of a cell, T cells ignore it.(689 br).
LOSS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE LEADS TO AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE :( 698 br). After the T cell has gone through the weeding out process in the thymus and been found to be a positive selection it can emerge from the thymus as an immunocompetence T cell. Even after the T cell emerges from the thymus it is possible for it to become anergic if there is no co stimulator. B cell from the bone marrow in like manner can become anergic (inactivated) if the co stimulator is not present.
This is a process that in most probability would happen with the excess cortisol from the stress response that would inhibit the production of the IL-1 disrupting the T cell stimulation that in turn would be the costimulator of the B cells.
RESULTS OF ACTIVATION OF THE STRESS RESPONSE:
When a stressor such as deficient nutrients is long-term, the stress triggers a wide-ranging set of bodily changes called the stress response or general adaptation syndrome (GAS). This resets the levels of controlled conditions which allow, for instance, the blood pressure and blood glucose levels to raise above normal. The first pathway is the fight or flight alarm reaction. This stage increase circulation promotes catabolism for ATP production and decreases nonessential activities such as digestive, urinary, and reproductive activities. But the 2nd stage response the Resistance Reaction which is initiated by hormones: corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and thyrotrophic releasing hormone (TRH)…The CRH stimulates the increase secretion of ACTH and ACTH stimulates the increased secretion of Cortisol.
Cortisol: (over long term secretion would become excessive causing excesses and thus disruptions the following process)…
stimulates gluconeogenesis…(in my opinion enhances blood levels of glucose)
enhances protein catabolism…
makes blood vessels more sensitive to constriction stimuli…
reduces inflammation…( in my opinion helps conceals the cell destruction)
discourages formation of new connective tissue…(my opinion would contribute to bone diseases)
suppresses production of IL-1...
The IL-1 turns on the immune system in response to stress. And in the negative feedback system cortisol suppresses this response which keeps the immune response in check once it has accomplished its goal. The immune response negative feedback system is disrupted due to the fact the body cannot be brought back into homeostasis removing the stressor. So the immune response is slowed during prolonged resistance stage. (the immune system disruption in Aids, I feel).
TRH increases secretion of TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone:
causes increased secretion of T3 and T4...
T3 and T4 stimulate production of ATP from glucose… GHRH causes the increased secretion of human growth hormone (hGH)..
stimulates the catabolism of triglycerides..(triggered at all times)
the conversion of glycogen to glucose glycogenolysis (would create a deficiency in glycogen)..
TSH and hGH increase catabolism supplying additional ATP for metabolically active cells (cellular metabolism disruption would disrupt the production of the ATP, so trigger would be activated at all times)...
During the resistance stage blood chemistry should return to nearly normal. And the cells should use the glucose at the same rate it enters the bloodstream. (But in my opinion the cellular metabolism disruption that inhibits the production of ATP, stops the success that would allow the resistance stage to shut off)… So the body would go into exhaustion.
Exhaustion happens because chronic and sever stressors deplete the hormonal and other mechanisms of the resistance reaction and lead eventually to failure of mechanisms essential to homeostasis. Problems such as diseases arise when the stress response is activated for too long a period of time.
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