Manganese (MN) is Essential for Male Fertility /Reproduction

Manganese (MN) is Essential for Male Fertility /Reproduction

There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macro means "large" in Greek (and your body needs larger amounts of macrominerals than trace minerals). The macromineral group is made up of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur.

A trace of something means that there is only a little of it. So even though your body needs trace minerals, it needs just a tiny bit of each one. Scientists aren't even sure how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health.

Manganese (Mn) is an element widely distributed in the earth’s crust. It is considered to be the twelfth most abundant element and the fifth most abundant metal. Manganese does not occur naturally in a pure state; oxides, carbonates and silicates are the most important manganese-containing minerals. The most common manganese mineral is pyrolusite (MnO2),
usually mined in sedimentary deposits by open-cast techniques. Manganese occurs in most iron ores. Its content in coal ranges from 6 µg/g to 100 µg/g; it is also present in crude oil, but at substantially lower concentrations.

Manganese madness was the term used to describe the initial psychiatric syndrome (compulsive behavior, emotional lability, hallucinations). More commonly, these workers developed a Parkinson's-like syndrome. Currently, the risks of exposure to low concentrations of manganese in the industrial and in the environmental settings (e.g., methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in gasoline) are being evaluated with regards to the development of subclinical neuropsychological changes. The American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists recently lowered the TLV-TWA for manganese compounds and inorganic manganese compounds to 0.2 mg Mn/m3.

Manganese is a trace mineral required for blood sugar regulation, fat and protein metabolism, bone growth, lactation, diabetes, asthma, PMS, muscle and mental fatigue.Manganese exposure on a low protein diet will result in a significant increase in dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Norepinephrine is one of the catecholamine stress hormones and high levels can induce hypertension.

Manganese is a component of some enzymes and stimulates the development and activity of other enzymes. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal antioxidant in mitochondria. Several enzymes activated my manganese contribute to the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol.

A deficiency in manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen in wound healing.Study over manganese is shown to be an effective inhibitor of bone loss in ovarectimized animals. This indicates that post-menopausal women need adequate manganese to prevent osteoporosis.

Food is the major natural source of manganese intake and the amount of manganese in a normal diet is enough to meet daily needs with no ill health effects. Its absorption can be influenced by dietary level of manganese and iron, the type of manganese compound, iron deficiency and age.Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese.

Various epidemiological studies of workers exposed to manganese at average levels below 5 mg/m3 have shown neurobehavioural, reproductive, and respiratory effects, both by objective testing methods and by workers' self-reported symptoms on questionnaires. Neurobehavioural effects generally have reflected disturbances in the control of hand movements (e.g. tremor, reduced hand steadiness) and/or the speed of movement (e.g. longer reaction time, slower finger-tapping speed). Reproductive effects have included a smaller number of children born to manganese-exposed workers compared to matched controls, and
various self-reported symptoms of sexual dysfunction.

Manganese deficiency in cows results in lower conception rates, presence of silent heats and abortion. Male reproductive performance is affected by low manganese status that inhibits libido and lowers spermatozoa numbers. Another consideration for bull fertility is bone soundness and the ability to travel. Zinc, copper and manganese are needed for skeletal development and maintenance as well as hoof integrity. A bull suffering from lameness or joint problems will breed fewer cows.

Feeding beef cattle complexed copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt has been shown to enhance reproductive performance early in the breeding season. Research results indicate that cows supplemented with complexed trace minerals have confirmed pregnancies 10 days earlier. Getting cows bred earlier after calving can help to shorten the breeding period and allow for a heavier calf the following year at weaning. Breeding females fed complexed minerals have shown a 35% improvement in AI conception rates compared to those fed inorganic forms.

Michigan-based researchers have found that too much or too little environmental exposure to the mineral manganese can reduce sperm quality and quantity, perhaps leading to male infertility.

Manganese is found naturally in the environment and is also released into the air from mining and manufacturing operations and from combustion of gasoline additives.

"Human exposure to ambient levels of manganese is universal and mainly occurs via air and dust exposures," Dr. Julie J. Wirth from Michigan State University, East Lansing and colleagues note in a report in the journal Epidemiology.

They point out that trace amounts of manganese are needed for normal sperm function, but high levels have been shown to harm male fertility.

The researchers measured blood levels of manganese in 200 men visiting infertility clinics in Michigan between 2003 and 2005.

They found that men with high manganese levels had a greater than 5-fold higher likelihood of low sperm motility, meaning that less than 50 percent of their sperm were moving. Men with high manganese levels were also 2.4-fold more likely to have low sperm counts.

Low blood manganese levels were also associated with low sperm motility and concentration, although not as strongly. It makes sense, Wirth's team writes, that low manganese might adversely affect sperm, given that this mineral plays a critical role in many metabolic processes, including reproduction.

The findings, Wirth told Reuters Health, "are important because the high manganese level was at or above the normal range for manganese in blood ... while the low level was within the normal range, suggesting that low ambient levels of manganese are a potential risk factor for poor semen quality."

A study shows that feeding a diet with a very low Mn concentration affects growth and thyroid hormone metabolism and that a dietary level of 0.5 mg Mn/kg is adequate for growth and thyroid hormone metabolism in the offspring of Mn-depleted dams. Manganese blocks the action of calcium ions. This may mean that excessive levels of manganese might interfere with calcium metabolism, requiring a person to need to supplement with more calcium and magnesium.

Keeping bones healthy throughout life depends on getting sufficient amounts of specific vitamins and minerals, including phosphorous, magnesium, boron, manganese, copper, zinc, folate, and vitamins C, K, B6, and B12.Peanuts are a good source of chromium, magnesium, manganese, niacin, and vitamin E. They also provide some biotin, copper, folacin, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin B6. Many other foods, including other legumes and whole grains, provide these nutrients.

A number of other dietary factors are proposed to act as antioxidants and have been suggested to protect against coronary heart disease. Among these are trace elements, including selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese, some of which serve as cofactors for enzymes with antioxidant activity (eg, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase).


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