Psychomotor Performance: Cause and Effect

Psychomotor Performance: Cause and Effect

Nerve cells die in the midbrain, especially in an area that also degenerates in Parkinson’s disease, the substantia nigra, located in the brainstem. These cells are involved in making the neurotransmitter (brain messenger) dopamine. Lewy bodies are found in the nerve cells that remain. The midbrain is involved in memory formation and learning, attention, and psychomotor (muscular movement) skills. The process of learning a psychomotor or physical skill is much the same, in many ways, as cognitive learning.

Reduction in the amount of sleep predisposes individuals to sleep deprivation, resulting in poor psychomotor performance. Nurses who work the night shift may be particularly subject to sleep deprivation because of irregularity of sleep hours and disruptions in the circadian cycle. Poor psychomotor performance has been associated with those nurses; according to a study.

The physiologic expression of sleep in humans appears to have multiple functions, ranging from the metabolic to the neurocognitive. A controlled group study shown that subjects experienced increasing lapses in psychomotor vigilance over days, resulting in a decline of performance .At that level, the subjects suffered lapses in their ability to react that would put them at risk driving or flying an airplane. They were also less able to multi-task successfully due to lack of sleep.

A study found that across sleep-disturbed children, those with both insomnia and hypersomnia had a longer history of illness, were more severely depressed and were more likely to have anhedonia, weight loss, psychomotor retardation and fatigue than those with either insomnia or hypersomnia. Insomnia is the most common problem, but having a combination of insomnia and sleepiness is 'double trouble'.

Complex partial (psychomotor) seizures usually begin with an aura that lasts 1 to 2 minutes. During the aura, the person starts to lose touch with the surroundings. During or immediately after the aura, some people stare, move the arms and legs in strange and purposeless ways, utter meaningless sounds, do not understand what other people are saying, and resist help. Other people are able to converse, but their conversation lacks spontaneity, and the content is somewhat sparse. This state may last for several minutes. It is estimated that 15 to 30 percent of traffic accidents are directly related to driver sleepiness, as determined by crash circumstances.

Giftedness is a trait that starts at birth and continues throughout the life-span. Giftedness is not a marker of success, but rather of aptitude or the inherent ability to learn. Some research suggests that gifted children have greater psychomotor, sensual, imaginative, intellectual, and emotional "over excitabilities". Many schools use a variety of measures of students' capability and potential when identifying gifted children.

For older people, the risks outweigh the benefits of taking sleeping pills and other sedatives are also questionable. On balance however, they argue that although treatment with sedative hypnotics improves aspects of sleep, the risk of adverse effects rises with such treatment. Older patients are more than twice as likely to experience an adverse event as they are to gain a better quality of sleep from such sedatives. Effects such as dizziness or loss of balance psychomotor type side effects were reported. Psychomotor effects that were reported in these studies were serious events six falls and one car crash.

The psychomotor domain is responsible for the distribution of information to activate movement and body function. Another study showed that a short duration social and physical activity program improved cognitive and psychomotor performance by 4 to 6 percent and improved subjective sleep quality in older adults.

Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a disorder that prevents the production of an important molecule called glutathione. Glutathione helps prevent damage to cells by neutralizing harmful molecules generated during energy production. In moderate glutathione synthetase deficiency; individuals affected by the severe form of this disorder may experience neurological symptoms. These problems may include seizures; a generalized slowing down of physical reactions, movements, and speech (psychomotor retardation); mental retardation; and a loss of coordination (ataxia).

Study demonstrates that clinicians cannot rely on classic presentations such as hallucinations and agitation to recognize delirium in this patient population. Instead, the authors conclude, "more subtle symptoms of hypoactive psychomotor behavior, altered sleep-wake cycle, and impaired attention and working memory should be early indicators for increased monitoring and identification of possible causes of delirium. Delirium involves a rapid movements triggered by changes in the nervous system (psychomotor restlessness).

Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that it is a disease that can run in the family. Generally, a child with VWM will appear relatively normal at birth, though he/she may have slightly delayed psychomotor development.

MHE is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a condition marked by impaired intellectual functioning, personality changes, altered levels of consciousness, and neuromuscular dysfunction. Although MHE has no recognizable symptoms, patients who have it show mild cognitive and psychomotor deficits. These can impair their daily functioning and health related quality-of-life (HRQOL) to the extent that they may not be able to work or drive a car.

The most characteristic feature of Binswanger's disease (BD) is psychomotor slowness - an increase in the length of time it takes, for example, for the fingers to turn the thought of a letter into the shape of a letter on a piece of paper. LISSENCEPHALY; a mental disorder may include unusual facial appearance, difficulty swallowing, failure to thrive, and severe psychomotor retardation. Anomalies of the hands, fingers, or toes, muscle spasms, and seizures may also occur.

Driving is a complex task that requires adequate cognitive, psychomotor and visuoperceptualmotor functions that work together. Side effects from cancer treatment may reduce head and neck mobility and may cause cognitive impairment, pain and psychological distress predisposing patients to greater driving risks.

Study of 466 Maryland bicyclists found that a third of fatally injured riders had elevated blood alcohol levels at the time of their accident. In addition, a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 grams per deciliter the legal level of drunkenness in most states was found to increase the rider's risk of fatal or serious injury by 2,000 percent. Riding a bike requires a higher level of psychomotor skills and physical coordination than driving a car, so alcohol has an even stronger effect on bicyclists than drivers.

The loss of coordination associated with alcohol intoxication is largely due to a disruption of cerebellar function. Long-term heavy drinking can also cause progressive degeneration of the cerebellum for some alcoholics.” The most practical implication of this research is that studies in the future which assess the predictors for the development of alcoholism should include data about psychomotor especially cerebellar functioning in their subjects," said researcher.

For parents, the most telling signs of depression are their children's behavior such as changes in appetite, sleep patterns, classroom concentration, and daily functioning. Additionally, activities that once were appealing may no longer be interesting. Symptoms often include appetite changes, insomnia and psychomotor agitation such as pacing, hand wringing, constant general restlessness or the opposite-psychomotor retardation, which makes the person speak and think slowly, as if in slow motion.

Gene variant may decrease the ability of neurons to repair themselves following open heart surgery, with the result that children score lower in developmental evaluations of psychomotor skills. Study finds that in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); the single most common type of epilepsy, the network of brain cells that generate complex partial seizures, or psychomotor seizures, are at least partly separate from the networks that produce generalized tonic-clonic seizures, commonly known as grand mal seizures.

Persons suffering from any of the severe mental disorders present with a variety of symptoms that may include inappropriate anxiety, disturbances of thought and perception, dysregulation of mood, and cognitive dysfunction. As with anxiety and psychosis, disturbances of mood may occur in a variety of patterns associated with different mental disorders such as Persistent sadness or despair, Insomnia (sometimes hypersomnia),Decreased appetite ,Psychomotor retardation ,Anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), Irritability, Apathy, poor motivation, social withdrawal ,Hopelessness, Poor self-esteem, feelings of helplessness, Suicidal ideation etc. Even short periods of psychological stress can cause the body to take longer to clear heart damaging fats from the bloodstream.

Study suggested that the heavy marijuana abusers had comparative deficits included verbal and visual memory, executive functioning, visual perception, psychomotor speed, and manual dexterity. On some tests, quantity of marijuana use accounted for more than half the variance in test scores.

Study reported severe anxiety and impaired psychomotor functions at a cannabis based therapeutic drugs as part of a controlled trial, which had been approved by an ethics board as safe for the subjects, experienced psychotic effects just as strong as if they had smoked cannabis.

Persons suffering from withdrawal also take longer to regain emotional equilibrium following stress. During periods of abstinence and/or craving, smokers have shown impairment across a wide range of psychomotor and cognitive functions, such as language comprehension.

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