Twins: The Enigma of Nature

Twins: The Enigma of Nature

Are the twins completely identical? Are they endowed with telepathy? Do they exert an exclusive relation one on the other? All was known as on their account. Let’s light on the universe of the gemology.


In an International Population Group Reported "Nearly 70% of the" fraternal twins are qualified”, i.e. they are not certified copies and the 30% remainders are known as “identical twin”, of true clones.

At the time of fecundation, all occurs “normally”. Only one spermatozoon meets an ovule and gives rise to an egg. During the 10 days which follow, the egg, by largest of the chances, is divided into two equal parts to give two embryos viable. Each one equitably receives half of the genetic contents which will be identical. The birth, the two babies resemble each other often physically milked for feature and have same genes exactly coming from their parents. They are “identical twin” or twins monozygotic. They have the same sex.

Simple fraternal relation:

The “fraternal twins” are named thus because they generally do not resemble each other and do not have same genes. At the time of fecundation, two ovules are present, a small anomaly which makes that two spermatozoa fertilize them. Each ovule presents upon the departure of different maternal genes and the two spermatozoa bring others of the father from there. The twins do not have any chance to have an identical genetic inheritance. They are known as twins, fraternal twins or heterozygote. It is thus completely possible to have with the birth of the babies of different sex or of the same sex.

The twins are then like any brother and/or sister born of single pregnancy. The only thing which differentiates them is their birth, generally the same day. From where differentiation out of forgeries and identical twin so that no error is made.
Only “identical twin” has the same genetic inheritance exactly. In the general thought, there is not any doubt that these twins resemble each other in any point. In are you of course?

Structure of the DNA:

It appears improbable to you that two twins monozygotic can have unspecified differences. However to look at there more closely, one can observe that some do not have the same color of eyes or hair… Before naming the phenomena responsible for these differences, it is necessary to know and include/understand a minimum organization of the genetic material, the DNA.
In each cell of our body, the core contains chromosomes made up of DNA. It is appeared as a double helix and consists of letters which are organized in such manner to create a single code with each person.

Each whole of letters constitutes genes. But like nature is well made, it exist various possible combinations for the same gene: alleles. Return to the core of the cell. To constitute the chromosomes, the DNA is rolled up around proteins, the hastiness and is compacted more and more.The twins have same genes exactly but mechanisms intervene on the form of genes and cause changes of appearance or feature: epigenetic differences.

Biological mechanisms:

Spanish researchers & Biomedical Engineers detected two biological phenomena able to influence the activity of genes. The methylamine of the DNA consists in decontaminating a gene by hanging a tiny molecule there. The enzymes are responsible for this phenomenon. Another mechanism which him contrary active a gene which in the beginning is deadened: the acetylating of his tones.

The researchers, during their studies noted that the environment could stimulate or inhibit these two biological phenomena. The hygiene of life and in fact the food are an important factor in these epigenetic differences between twins.
There is not thus only one genetic determinism in the activity of genes of an individual; the environmental factors contribute to it much. That explains some of the differences observed on the physical level as on the risks of a disease.

Types of twins?

In the collective thought, the twins are divided into two categories: truths and fraternal twins. At the time of the fecundation or scission of egg, accidents can operate and give rise to “particular” twins.

The Siamese ones:

These individuals are twins completely monozygotic because they are of the same sex and have the same genetic inheritance. Their characteristic resides in the joining of certain parts and bodies of their body, preventing any independent life to them. This anomaly is due to a late scission of egg at the time of the pregnancy. If it is carried out beyond 8 days, the two embryos will not be completely separate one of the other and will be Siamese.

Fortunately, this anomaly does not concern that a pregnancy on 75 000 is less than 1% of the twins monozygotic. Certain Siamese have recourse to the operation to carry out an independent life physically. These interventions are more than risky.

Twins out of mirror:

These individuals account for 20% of the twins, as well at the monozygotic the disgusts. These two people resemble each other as if one were the reflection of the other through a mirror, from where they name. That is generally characterized by a droopier and the other left-handed person. This perfect symmetry is found in thousands of examples: establishment of the hair, fingerprints, freckles… To date, no researcher can explain what is at the origin of this perfect symmetry. The most known twins out of mirror are the two brothers Bryan, champions American of tennis in double.

Semi-monozygotic twins:

At the time of ovogenesis, creation of ovules, two ovules are necessary to give some only one mature. The second degenerates into a polar globule. At the time of fecundation, it can happen that the polar globule remains in the presence of the ovule. It is fertilized by a spermatozoon what gives a twin pregnancy then. The two babies have the same genetic inheritance of the mother but not that of the father because two different spermatozoa fertilized the two cells. To differentiate them from the disgusts, a genetic analysis is carried out, not on the DNA but on the RNA mitochondrial, of genes of only maternal origin. If it is identical between the two individuals, they are semi-monozygotic twins.

Truth-false twins:

The difference of with the semi-monozygotic twins is that an ovule was fertilized by two different spermatozoa. This phenomenon is extremely rare. The twins have all maternal genes and share half of paternal origin. Generally, the embryos resulting from this fecundation do not survive. A case recently has been just observed in the USA because one of the two twins was hermaphrodite, half male female half.

A hereditary gemology?

A disconcerting report is observed since generations: the twins generally find themselves in the same families. First reflex: it is hereditary. After many studies, the scientists explain that the genes do not have anything to see in it. A mystery surrounds the twins monozygotic because no scientist knows the implied factors. On the other hand for the twin’s heterozygote, several phenomenons must take into consideration:

Treatments against sterility:

Since the Eighties, many techniques were developed to help the sterile or barren women to have children. The injection of hormones makes it possible to stimulate the ovogenesis and thus the manufacture of ovules. This technique is responsible for the synthesis of several reproductive cells and thus of multiple pregnancies.

At present, the scientists arrive at better managing the overflows of their techniques because the multiple pregnancies are not without risk on the health of the mother and the children.

Several biological causes:

Studies were undertaken in the whole world to include/understand what causes twin pregnancies. The age is the first factor “at the risk”. More the mothers are old, namely between 35 and 39 years, more they are likely to give rise to fraternal twins. The twin rate of births recorded in France for this section is 1.71%.

The light would also influence hormonal secretions. It would activate the synthesis of ovules. This assumption results from the rates of births of higher twins in July than in January.

Food:

A study undertaken by Gary Steinman in New York tends to prove that a woman consuming dairy products to more chance to give rise to twins fraternal twins. Why? Quite simply, the lactose would support the secretion and blood concentration of a growth hormone, the IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) favorable to the release of ovules by the ovary. Thus more the concentration of IGF in blood is important; more ovules are likely to be released at the same time.

This hormone is to be also correlated with the origin of the mother. The African ones have naturally more blood IGF than the Caucasians and the Asian ones. Besides they give rise to more twins than in the other ethnos groups. This natural rate of hormone is purely genetic and not only related to the food.

Dominating/Dominated?

Certain people go there from their small anecdote concerning this supposed bond of domination between twins. Much advances the idea that the first born is always the leader and that the second is the follower. The elder one would be more affirmed than the second. Then history of grandmother or real twin will bond?

Effect of couple:

Many psychological examinations were undertaken on the twins as well at the monozygotic the fraternal twins. True guinea-pigs for the geneticists and the sociologists; this felt among twins deteriorates sometimes the veracity of the results obtained because they can be knowingly played of the researchers and endorse a role.

Nevertheless, Rene Zazzo; a sociologist of reputation, were interested in their case and put forth many assumptions in the construction of the twin personality and their emotional tie. By comparing the behavior of identical twin between them and the fraternal twins, it notes that there is a relation of couple but which he does not describe as inherent in their gemology but specific to any individual during his life relation for child-mother, couple of friends, and couple in work. Each person builds herself while growing through the eyes of people who surround it.

The difference for the twins lies in the fact that their psychological construction is carried out at the same time and that they are used like first referent. That explains the sometimes fusion character of the twin bond synonymous with great affection between the two individuals. This affection generally leads to a great complementarily of character among twins. Sometimes one proves more undertaking or extravert that the other and one qualify it wrongly dominated bond dominating. This report is generally observed among twins fraternal twins of different sex where the girl affirms herself like driving.

Influences on genetic or external?

Another point to be included/ understood in this bond which links the twins is the impact of the genetics and the environment. Studies related to the observation of the personalities of identical twin and fraternal twins who for the first have the same genetic material and the second not. Then, the sociologists observed twins raised together and others separately.

Verdict: the monozygotic would present differences in character much less perceptible than at the “couple” of heterozygote. A proof that the genes would be responsible for the construction of their personality and the character: emotive, perseverance, intro or extraversion…

Any door to believe that the genes are primarily the engines of the psychology of the twins but certain contradictory observations come to start again the idea that the environmental factors like education, the friends take an active part in the development of their personality.

Telepathy?

It is not rare to read in the press of the accounts of extrasensory experiments among twins monozygotic. For example, one of the two binoculars has a car accident to hundreds of kilometers from where his/ her sister is. This one feels a pain at the exact place where its binocular was wounded. Sheer the coincidence or real telepathic transmission?

Contradictory studies:

The paranormal intrigue enormously and is the subject of many myths and beliefs. The characteristic of the man is to believe in still unexplained phenomena by science. A true challenge for all the scientists. Telepathy among twins gave place to three major studies.

Reaction EEG (electroencephalogram) : 15 pairs of twins monozygotic are separate in two parts. The researchers record their cerebral activity at the time of various commands. On the 15 couples, only 4 present an activity of the similar brain in any point. A study can convincing considering the weak studied sample. This report could have been observed at any duet, twin or not.

Study of Stockholm: 652 twins, old women 33 to 35 years are audited on their extrasensory experiments. 40% of them, monozygotic testify to have lived about it but with various intensities against 12% at the disgusts.

Reunion project: Twins must answer a pointed questionnaire and make a choice among an incredible number of suggestions. Objective: to observe the number of similar answers between each pair of twins. The result is not very conclusive.

An over-estimated phenomenon:

Within sight of the various results of these studies, the researchers affirm that telepathy is over-estimated enough among twins. It is clear that identical twin is equipped with a cognitive sensitivity more developed than at the fraternal twins and any individual.

The twins monozygotic divide same genes exactly what explains a strong bond between them and single supporting this significant connection.

Two individuals raised under similar conditions, equipped with a relational bond extremely and a rather close nature are able to put themselves at the place of the order at the time of particular events. In fact, the unconscious one is worked as of the youth.

Conclusion:

The gemology exists since the night of times and this duet with share intrigues and raises many questions. As opposed to what the majority of people think, “identical twin” are not similar to 100%. That it is from a genetic point of view, physical or psychological, the twins present differences.

Many studies on the twins are still in hand. The researchers want all to include/ understand of their relation and to know if that concerns their genes or their environment.

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