Diet Plans to Prevent Risk of Relapsing Colon Cancer/ Colorectal Cancer/ Bowel Cance
The majority of colon cancers are considered sporadic, meaning they aren't linked to genes passed on from your family. Doctors aren't sure what causes most cases of colon cancer, though your exposure to carcinogens, your lifestyle and your diet may play a part.Because colorectal cancers usually arise from adenomatous polyps, it is believed that preventing the growth of adenomas in the colon and rectum or removing any that appear will prevent colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. It is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world.Colon cancer is considered the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States.
Relative weight in adulthood and weight gain have been found to be associated with increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, rectum, prostate and other sites.Relative weight in adolescence was significantly associated with colon cancer in one retrospective study.
Overall eating patterns appear to be more important for colon cancer prevention than intakes of specific nutrients or food. groups.Some evidence suggests the Mediterranean diet causes changes in the colon that would prevent cancer.The Mediterranean diet focuses on vegetables, whole grains, fruits, fish and olive oil. High fat meats and processed foods are limited. However,genetic predisposition cannot overcome the protective effect of fiber and a vegetarian diet.
Patients with stage III colon cancer who have undergone surgery and chemotherapy with the goal of cure may have a higher risk of relapsing and dying early if they follow a predominantly "Western" diet of red meat, fatty foods, refined grains, and desserts, according to research.
Cancer prevention specialist suggested that 250,000 cases of colorectal cancer and 350,000 cases of breast cancer could be prevented worldwide by increasing intake of vitamin D3, particularly in countries north of the equator. Vitamin D3 is available through diet, supplements and exposure of the skin to sunlight.
Colon cancer patients who eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, poultry and fish can significantly lower the risk of their cancer returning, new research suggests.
"We know a lot about how certain dietary things affect the risk of developing colon cancer in the first place but we didn't know, before this study, how diet affected persons who already have cancer," explained study author Dr. Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, an assistant professor of medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston.
Although the findings, which appear in the issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, need confirmation, colon cancer patients might want to consider improving their eating habits.
"This is not a substitute for standard therapy, but it's not unreasonable for oncologists to use this data to start talking about diet," Meyerhardt said. "There are benefits in other regards, such as benefits for heart disease, and it does give us some initial information that may affect people's outcome."
"Maybe the message is it's never too late to change your diet," added Dr. Andrejs Avots-Avotins, an associate professor of internal medicine at Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine and a gastroenterologist with Scott & White Hospital in Temple, Texas. "A healthy diet is going to be so helpful in so many different ways that even if you do end up with a cancer that may or may not have been related to your diet, this may be of benefit in prolonging your survival."
Diet and other lifestyle factors have been strongly implicated in the risk of developing colon cancer. It's been less clear what effect diet has on the course of established colon cancer.
The authors asked 1,009 patients with stage III colon cancer (cancer that had spread to the lymph nodes) who were participating in a chemotherapy trial to answer dietary questionnaires during and after the time they received treatment. All participants had already undergone surgery to remove the cancer.
The study was funded partially by the U.S. National Cancer Institute and Pfizer Oncology.
Two major dietary patterns were identified: Western (high intakes of meat, fat, refined grains and dessert) and prudent (lots of fruits and vegetables, poultry and fish).
A Western diet was associated with a significantly worst prognosis, both in terms of recurrence and death, than a prudent diet.
Compared with patients ranked in the lowest 20 percent of a Western dietary pattern, those in the highest 20 percent had almost three-and-a-half times the risk of recurrence or death. Those in the highest 20 percent of a Western diet were also 2.9 times more likely to see their cancer recur than those in the lower 20 percent.
"There's a biological basis for this. The Western type of diet affects insulin levels and insulin-like growth factors that help promote cancer's growth and metastases," Meyerhardt explained. "The magnitude of the effect was surprising, however."
Many studies have demonstrated the cancer-fighting effects of plant chemicals called phytochemicals. Fruits and vegetables that contain phytochemicals can often be identified by colors:
- People who eat a diet similar to that of Western countries, such as the United States and Europe, have a higher risk of developing colon cancer than do people who eat diets typically seen in developing countries.A well-planned vegetarian diet is a healthy way to meet your nutritional needs which may have a significant impact on the gastrointestinal (GI) system, affecting person's lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) .
- Dark green (broccoli, spinach, kale, collard greens, mustard greens). These specific vegetables contain chemicals called isothiocyanates, which have been associated with a lower risk for cancer in general.
- The data suggest that a diet characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets and desserts, french fries, and refined grains increases the risk of cancer recurrence and decreases survival.
- Red (red pepper, tomatoes, watermelon, raspberries, pink grapefruit). Lycopene is a chemical found in these foods that may have strong cancer-protective properties. Cooking tomatoes appears to increase their benefits.
- Yellow-orange (carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, oranges, tangerines). The colors in these foods are due to carotenoids. Carotenoids have been associated with health protection, although they may not have much effect on colon cancer itself.
- Pterostilbene ;a compound found in blueberries shows promise of preventing colon cancer in animals that could be developed into a pill with the potential for fewer side effects than some commercial drugs that are currently used to prevent the disease, according to a joint study by scientists .Pterostilbene is an antioxidant that is similar to resveratrol, an antioxidant identified in grapes and red wine that also is recognized for its anticancer properties. Pterostilbene also is found in grapes, but it is more abundant in blueberries.
- Blue-black (many berries). Dark berries appear to have potent chemicals that may be protective against cancer. In one animal study, extracts from black raspberries reduced colon cancer tumors in rats.
- High intake of red meat has traditionally always been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, especially in Western countries. There has recently been heightened interest in examining the role n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) plays in enabling colorectal cancer prevention further, as existing epidemiological findings are limited and inconsistent.
- All fruits and vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins have compounds that can slow down the growth of colon cancer cells.The researchers tested the anti-cancer effects of anthocyanin-rich extracts from a variety of fruits and vegetables. They retrieved these anthocyanins from some relatively exotic fruits and other plants, including grapes, radishes, purple corn, chokeberries, bilberries, purple carrots and elderberries.