First Aid Treatment of Fractures (Broken Bones), Foreign Bodies (Into The Eye, Ear & Throat), Poisoning and Fainting
Fractures (Broken Bones) :
In case of severe injuries there may be fractures of the bone with or without a wound to the skin. In fracture there is pain, swelling, deformity and loss of function of the part or the limb.
Splints -These are the wooden or metallic appliance to keep in position or protect the injured part of the body. Wood splints are easy to handle. They should be long enough to reach beyond the joints above and below the fracture. They should be well padded with absorbent cotton or soft cloth. Two splints, one on each side, of the limb should be applied and bandaged the splints with the limb in between.
Application of splints:
In case of a simple fracture apply the splints over the skin. In case of a compound fracture i.e. fracture with broken skin, bleeding should be stopped and then bandaged. After that, splints are applied. The injured should not be moved from the place before applying the splints. In absence of suitable splints pillows, blankets, umbrella, thick newspaper may be used. After splinting the part the patient should be made comfortable and shock treatment should be given.
Do not rub the eye. Keep it closed or let the tear accumulate to wash the foreign body to the corner. Try to remove it with the corner of a piece of sterile .cloth or gauze. If the foreign body is under the lid, pull the lid, up and remove it with a piece of sterile cloth. If the foreign body is sticking to the surface of the eye ball send him to the doctor.
Put a few drops of warm oil into the ear. Do not probe with wire, needle or pins and send for the doctor.
Sometimes, coins ,false teeth and other foreign body may be become lodged in the throat (CHOKING) obstructing air passage. After calling the physician try to remove the foreign body. In case of children, slapping on the back on lifting by the leg with head down wards often causes expulsion of the foreign body. Sometimes, foreign body may be expelled when /he person is made to vomit by putting a finger in the throat. In case of adult he may be laid on a table with head hanging downwards and slapping on the back may expel the foreign body.If the obstruction is not cleared, repeat steps 1-4 three times - if the infant becomes unconscious stop. If the obstruction still has not cleared, take the infant with you for an ambulance. Continue until help arrives.
When some body takes a poison, immediately send for a doctor or send the patient to the hospital and if possible supply with the sample of the poison. The sample may help in giving quick and correct treatment,.When the poison’s not known a specific antidote cannot be used. Induce vomiting by giving a large quantity of the solution of common salt, solution of soap or solution of soda or putting fingers in the throat.
Apply heat to the reduce shock. Use artificial respiration if necessary and hand over patient to the doctor.
Loosen all tight clothing’s. Place the body flat on the back with head slightly lower level. Throw cold water to the face and apply warm water to the hands and feet Allow plenty of fresh air and rest. Ammonia or smelling salts may be held to the nose. When consciousness returns give him some stimulant and some warm drinks.