Neupro Skin Patch (Rotigotine Transdermal): for the Treatment of Parkinsons Disease (PD)

Neupro Skin Patch (Rotigotine Transdermal): for the Treatment of Parkinsons Dise

Parkinson's disease occurs when the nerve cells in the part of the brain that controls muscle movement are gradually destroyed. (The damage is progressive, which means it gets worse with time.) The exact reason that the cells of the brain deteriorate is unknown. The disorder may affect one or both sides of the body, with varying degrees of loss of function.

Nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help send signals back and forth. Damage in the area of the brain that controls muscle movement causes a decrease in dopamine production. Too little dopamine disturbs the balance between nerve-signalling substances (transmitters). Without dopamine, the nerve cells cannot properly send messages. This results in the loss of muscle function.

Over the years, WHO programmes, projects and activities in the areas of mental and neurological disorders have been closely linked. To address the large and increasing burden, many activities are being undertaken by the Programme on Neurological Disorders and Neuroscience. These are focused on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of neurological disorders which are of public health importance as they occur frequently, cause substantial disability, create a burden on individuals, families, communities and societies all over the world. These comprise epilepsy, headache, dementias (including Alzheimer's disease), multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and other hyperkinetic disorders, stroke, pain syndromes, and brain injury. The programme's main goal is to ensure that an appropriate range of care is made available to all people with neurological disorders in every country of the world.

he symptoms of Parkinson's disease include tremors or trembling (shaking hands are often the most telltale signs of it); difficulty maintaining balance and coordination; trouble standing or walking; stiffness; and general slowness.

Over time, a person with Parkinson's may have trouble smiling, talking, or swallowing. Their faces may appear flat and without expression, but people with Parkinson's continue to have feelings - even though their faces don't always show it. And the disorder has no effect on thinking or memory. Because of problems with balance, some people with Parkinson's fall down a lot, which can result in broken bones. Some people with Parkinson's may also feel sad or depressed and lose interest in the things they used to do.

Two studies have already provided clues that health-related quality of life may be affected by factors other than disease severity and drug therapy: A US-based study suggested that health-related quality of life might be seriously misjudged if inferred from clinical observations only. Another, more recent study in the UK has demonstrated that quality of life may not be strongly correlated with severity of Parkinson's disease but is affected by additional factors, such as the patients' access to a support group, the ability to gain the information and quality of contact they require, their use of non-drug therapies, etc

For many people with Parkinson's, the initial response to treatment can be dramatic. Over time, however, the benefits of drugs frequently diminish or become less consistent, although symptoms can usually still be fairly well controlled.Physical therapy, especially, can be extremely helpful for people with Parkinson's disease — both in the early stages and later, as the disease progresses.

Drug-induced psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease is a difficult problem to manage. It is the single most important factor leading to the placement of such patients in nursing homes, and it causes more stress for care givers than does motor dysfunction. Estimates of the frequency of drug-induced psychosis are as high as 22 percent.Until recently, the treatment of drug-induced psychosis was limited to reducing the dose of antiparkinsonian medication, adding a neuroleptic drug, discontinuing drug therapy for a period, or using electroconvulsive therapy.

Medications can help manage problems with walking, movement and tremor by increasing the brain's supply of dopamine. Your medication needs may change over time, and the drug dosage and timing may require adjustment. For these reasons, you and your doctor will work together to design a program that best suits your needs, especially as the disease progresses.

The introduction of the "atypical" antipsychotic drugs — those with few or no extrapyramidal side effects — raised the possibility of treating drug-induced psychosis without reducing motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic disorder that requires broad-based management including patient and family education, support group services, general wellness maintenance, exercise, and nutrition. At present, there is no cure for PD, but medications or surgery can provide relief from the symptoms. Recently, Botox injections are being investigated as a non-FDA approved possible experimental treatment.

The most widely used form of treatment is L-dopa in various forms. L-dopa is transformed into dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (often known by its former name dopa-decarboxylase).

The Neupro patch (rotigotine transdermal system) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as the first skin patch to treat symptoms of early Parkinson's disease, the agency said Wednesday.

The active drug, rotigotine, hadn't been previously approved in the United States. It's a member of the dopamine agonist class of drugs, which activates body processes that mimic the effects of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Parkinson's is caused by a loss of dopamine-producing brain cells.

During clinical testing involving more than 1,100 people, side effects for the once-daily Neuro patch included skin reactions, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and insomnia. The FDA cited other "potential safety concerns" including the possibility of falling asleep while driving, and a sudden drop in blood pressure on standing up.

The agency cited Parkinson's Action Network statistics that more than 1 million Americans live with the disease and 60,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. Symptoms include trembling of the arms, legs, jaw, and face; impaired balance; and stiffness of the limbs and trunk.

The Neuro patch is produced by Schwarz Bioscience of Research Triangle Park, N.C.

NEW HOPE: Stem cells are cells within the body that have the potential to develop into one or many kinds of cells. Stem cells potentially could treat or cure many diseases and conditions. These include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, birth defects, osteoporosis, spinal cord injury and burns.


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