Sperm (Semen) Count in Men May Affect for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Three main types of lupus exist — systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), discoid lupus erythematosus and drug-induced lupus. Of these, SLE is the most common and serious form of the disease, frequently causing swollen, painful joints, skin rash, extreme fatigue and kidney damage. In rare cases, mothers can pass antibodies to their babies during childbirth (neonatal lupus erythematosus), though the mothers themselves usually show no signs of lupus.
SLE, also called lupus, is a serious, chronic disease, which means it rarely goes away completely.Some people have severe, even fatal, cases of lupus, but for most people symptoms can be controlled. Lupus affects mainly young women. In the US it is more common among African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American women than Caucasians.Discoid lupus (also called cutaneous lupus) is a form of lupus that affects the skin only. It is milder and more common than SLE.
Causes of infertility can be found in about 90% of infertility cases but, despite extensive tests, about 10% of couples will never know why they cannot conceive. Between 10 - 30% of cases of infertility have more than one cause. Male or female infertility each account for about 30 - 40% of cases. In men, sperm defects (their quality and quantity) are usually responsible. Female infertility is more complex.Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the major cause of female infertility.
The risk for coronary artery disease and strokes is greatly increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially among young women, who are usually protected against these disorders.
Fertility rates in women with SLE match those in the general population. However, half the pregnancies in these women result in premature birth or spontaneous abortion, most often during the second trimester. Obstetric care should be managed by a perinatal specialist. Because immunosuppressants entail a risk for infertility, sperm and ova banking should be discussed.
Recurrent fetal loss has been well described in women with antiphospholipid antibodies. Such women also often have other autoantibodies commonly found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Treating them with prednisone and aspirin may reduce the risk of fetal loss.For some patients whose kidneys or central nervous systems are affected by lupus, a type of drug called an immunosuppressive may be used.
Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ or system in the body causing a wide range of complications, including: kidney failure, heart and heart valve disorders, arthritis, brain disorders, skin disorders and lung disease, including fibrosis and respiratory failure.
Estrogens and their receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Estrogen receptor alpha codon 594 genotype may influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus at a younger age, as well as a certain disease clinical pattern.
The mother's role in directly nurturing the fetus during gestation is a special circumstance that may have a very important meaning for one area of impressive disparity between the sexes — autoimmune disorders. Graves' disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and multiple sclerosis share few clinical features, but these diseases affect women 3 to 10 times as often as men.
The role of sex hormones in the development and clinical expression of lupus is complex.Previous studies shown that lower levels of a specific androgen, testosterone, in some men with lupus. Men with lupus, however, are in no way less masculine than men without lupus, and sexual activity, potency, and fertility in men with lupus does not differ from men without lupus.
Hormones, Cytokines, major immune factors that are active in SLE, are directly affected by sex hormones. In general, estrogen enhances antibody production and testosterone reduces antibody production, although their exact role in SLE is unclear. Women with SLE often have lower levels of several active male hormones (androgens), and some men who are affected by SLE may have abnormal androgen levels.
Some have suggested that lupus is more severe in males but most studies have not found this to be so. The difference may be explained by a delay in diagnosing or treating lupus in males, as the disease is less often thought of in men, being more common in females, and because men may be more reluctant to seek medical advice than women.
The aspects of lupus which have been reported to be increased in males in some studies include skin rashes, pleurisy, neurological disease affecting the nerves in the arms and legs (peripheral neuropathy), kidney disease, vasculitis and Raynauds phenomenon. Impotence has been reported in some patients with abnormal hormones, particularly low androgen levels. More men develop drug-induced lupus than women mainly because medications that produce drug induced lupus are more frequently used in men.
Sperm abnormalities in men with lupus may be linked to intravenous treatment with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (IV CYC), according to Brazilian researchers.
In a new study, published in the issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, researchers studied 25 men with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 35 healthy controls.
SLE is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects women in their reproductive years but can also affect men. There have been concerns about the future fertility of men with SLE, but, until now, no studies have been conducted on testes function and sperm abnormalities in men with SLE.
The researchers examined the genitalia and analyzed the semen of all of the participants.
They found that the men with SLE had lower testicular volume, a lower sperm count, lower sperm motility, lower sperm volume and a lower percentage of normally formed sperm, compared with their healthy counterparts.
Furthermore, the SLE patients with more severe sperm abnormalities had a higher frequency of treatment with IV CYC, suggesting that IV CYC treatment may be associated with fertility-compromising damage to the testes.
The researchers pointed out that although it is not possible to predict which men with SLE will become infertile, it is important to discuss the option of freezing and storing sperm with all male SLE patients early in the course of the disease.
Male gender is a strong predictor of target organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) early in the course of disease, according to a study reported here at the American College of Rheumatology.Positive lupus anticoagulant (LAC), shorter disease duration and higher early damage were independently associated with male SLE. Male gender was a strong predictor of damage, early in the course of disease.
Another study over mice researchers shown that a mutant gene is called Yaa (for Y-linked autoimmune acceleration) since it is located on the male Y chromosome and dramatically accelerates the progression of SLE. Because of its remarkable effect on the development of SLE in lupus-prone mice, the identification of the nature of Yaa is of utmost importance for our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in human SLE.
This study shows the importance of taking into account both objective and subjective measurement scores in treatment decisions. It is our hope that these data will help redress this imbalance and ensure equal prescribing and disease management for all.
Sequence differences in less than 0.2% of the 3-billion-base human genome play a vital role in a bewildering variety of human disease.The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) consists of hundreds of genes on human chromosome 6 that are important in most autoimmune conditions, when our biological defences turn on our own systems.Haplotypes are combinations of gene and sequence variants that tend to occur together in an individual genome.
The COX haplotype has been associated with susceptibility to a wide range of diseases, including type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus and myasthenia gravis. The PGF haplotype provides protection against type 1 diabetes and predisposes to other diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lupus is characterized by periods of illness, called flares, and periods of wellness, or remission. At present, there is no cure for lupus. However, lupus can be effectively treated with drugs, and most people with the disease can lead active, healthy lives.