USA Men With Multiple Female Partners Facing Risk of STDs and HIV
Having multiple sexual partners (or her partner having multiple sexual partners) means the risk of getting infected with HIV increases with the number of sexual partners and the number of sexual acts. The higher the rate of partner change, the greater the likelihood that the virus will pass from infected to uninfected persons.
Because of their experience of sexual assault, some men attempt to prove their masculinity by becoming hyper-masculine. For example, some men deal with their experience of sexual assault by having multiple female sexual partners or engaging in dangerous "macho" behaviors to prove their masculinity. Parents of boys who have been sexually abused may inadvertently encourage this process.
The first ever comprehensive analysis of sexual behavior around the world, is published in the Lancet stated that monogamy was found to be the dominant pattern in most regions of the world. Despite substantial regional variation in the prevalence of multiple partnerships, which is notably higher in industrialized countries, most people report having only one recent sexual partner. Worldwide, men report more multiple partnerships than women, but in some industrialized countries the proportions of men and women reporting multiple partnerships are more or less equal.
Recently a new study by Washington University School of Medicine has linked the clinical diagnoses of alcohol dependence and conduct disorder among 18-to-25-year-olds to the risk of having a high number of sexual partners. They found a risk for high number of sexual partners among persons with conduct disorder independent of level of alcohol involvement. In addition, individuals with co-occurring alcohol dependence and conduct disorder are at even greater risk of multiple sex partnerships. This suggests that they are not only at greater risk for STDs and HIV, but if infected, they are likely to infect many others.
Women are twice as likely as men to become infected with the pathogens causing gonorrhea, chlamydial disease, hepatitis B, and chancroid after a single exposure. The efficiency of male-to-female transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is about four times as high as that of female-to-male transmission.
Rates of heterosexually acquired HIV infection among women have been increasing in the United States. In 1995, heterosexual contact emerged as the leading cause of AIDS among American girls and women 15 to 44 years old; in 1996, 6 percent of men and 40 percent of women with AIDS had been infected by heterosexual transmission.
Most cases of cervicitis are caused by infection with sexually transmitted diseases, including gonorrhea and chlamydia. Risk of getting cervicitis associated with STDs if you engage in high-risk sexual behavior, such as if you have unprotected sex or sex with multiple partners or began having sex at an early age.
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women. It is seen more frequently among women who have had sex at an early age, multiple sex partners, who have contracted sexually transmitted disease, or who smoke. It tends to occur when women are in their 40's and 50's. Dysplasia usually occurs before the cells become cancerous.
Another study by assistant professor; Mark Padilla of the University of Michigan School of Public Health warned that Male sex tourists, largely from the United States and Europe, may be fueling an HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, and efforts to stop the epidemic will be severely hampered unless HIV prevention dollars are diverted to help male prostitutes
The African-American and Hispanic populations are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted disease. The incidence of gonorrhea is substantially higher among African-American and Hispanic persons than among whites; for AIDS the respective incidence rates are six and three times as high as among whites. The proportion of cases of AIDS that occur among minority groups has been increasing since 1992.
Study supported by grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recorded that "Crack" cocaine, an addictive, smokable form of cocaine, gained widespread use in many urban neighborhoods in the United States in the mid-1980s, particularly among poor young adults who were members of minority groups .The epidemic of crack use, which has been accompanied by increases in violence and crime, has also been associated with the exploitation of addicted women, who are often induced to provide sex in exchange for crack or money to buy crack. Crack-smoking women who exchange sex for money or drugs often lack control over their working conditions and suffer severe degradation and ultimately promotes the heterosexual transmission of HIV.
Eleven percent of U.S. men say they've carried on more than one sexual relationship at a time during the past year -- a practice that may facilitate transmission of HIV, according to researchers.
Using data from a government health survey of nearly 5,000 U.S. men, 11 percent said they had at least two sexual partners during the same time period during the last year. Of concern, was these men were also more likely to say their female partners were not monogamous either, and said they drank and used drugs during sex. In addition, men with multiple female partners were more likely than monogamous men to have had sex with another man.
All of these behaviors raise the risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). African-American and Hispanic men, who bear a disproportionate share of U.S. HIV cases, were two to three times more likely than whites to have concurrent sex partners.” This study sheds light on the epidemic of heterosexually transmitted HIV in the U.S. -- especially among African Americans and Hispanics," Dr. Adaora A. Adimora, the study's lead author, told Reuters Health.
She and her colleagues at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill reports the findings in the American Journal of Public Health in Dec. 2007. The results are based on a 2002 federal government survey that included 4,928 men between the ages of 15 and 44. Among the 11 percent of men who'd had more than one sex partner at a time in the past year, most said they'd had only female partners.
While it's known that a high number of lifetime sexual partners is a risk factor for STDs and HIV, having these relationships at the same time may be especially risky. If one person becomes infected with an STD, he or she can rapidly pass it on, before becoming aware of his or her own infection. "People -- especially women -- need to avoid partnerships with people who have other partners," Adimora said, adding that this is especially true for black and Hispanic women. As always, she noted, people need to use condoms every time they have sex.
Differences in the incidence of AIDS according to race and ethnic group are especially dramatic for women. In 1996 these rates were more than 17 and 6 times as high for African-American and Hispanic women, respectively, as for white women (61.7 and 22.7 as compared with 3.5 per 100,000).
Some of the study's findings showed that peers influence adolescent attitudes and behavior. Adolescents whose friends had intercourse without a condom were more likely to have intercourse without a condom the following year. Those whose friends believed that sex had undesirable consequences were likely to change attitudes to be similar to those of their friends, and were less likely to have intercourse without a condom the following year. The effect of friends' attitudes on sexual behavior was stronger for females than for males.
This study suggests that more effort needs to be made to educate about HIV/AIDS and that condom use should be promoted, especially among the young who seem to be engaging in sexual intercourse with more partners than earlier generations. Current rates of infection are low. Policy-makers, however, should be aware that if this trend towards having more sexual partners continues, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex.
Patients with viral hepatitis should abstain from sexual activity or take strict precautions. Women partners or infected women should abstain from sexual activity during menstruation. Either partner with infections that cause bleeding in the genital or urinary areas should avoid sexual activity until the infection is no longer active. Couples with an infected partner or people sharing household with an infected person should avoid sharing personal items, such as razors or toothbrushes.
Responsibility for female: Think before you act. Don’t be pressured into having sex—it does not have to be a part of dating. If you choose to become sexually active, know your partner’s sexual history and get tested for STDs, including HIV. Ask your partner to do the same. More public health programs may led to substantial changes in sexual behavior among young men, especially an increased use of condoms, and the rate of new HIV infections.
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